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Gut microbiota and inflammation in chronic kidney disease and their roles in the development of cardiovascular disease.


The health and proper functioning of the cardiovascular and renal systems largely depend on crosstalk in the gut-kidney-heart/vessel triangle. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has an integral function in this crosstalk. Mounting evidence indicates that the development of chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases follows chronic inflammatory processes that are affected by the gut microbiota via various immune, metabolic, endocrine, and neurologic pathways. Additionally, deterioration of the function of the cardiovascular and renal systems has been reported to disrupt the original gut microbiota composition, further contributing to the advancement of chronic cardiovascular and renal diseases. Considering the interaction between the gut microbiota and the renal and cardiovascular systems, we can infer that interventions for the gut microbiota through diet and possibly some medications can prevent/stop the vicious cycle between the gut microbiota and the cardiovascular/renal systems, leading to a decrease in chronic cardiovascular and renal diseases.

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