Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part 2: reflectivity
The usual quantum efficiency (QE) measurement heavily relies on a calibrated photodiode (PD) and the knowledgeof the CCD s gain. Either can introduce significant systematic errors. But reflectivity can also be used to verify QE measurements. 1 - R >_ QE, where R is the reflectivity, and over a significant wavelength range, 1 - R = QE. An unconventional reflectometer has been developed to make this measurement. R is measured in two steps, using light from the lateral monochromator port via an optical fiber. The beam intensity is measured directly with a PD, then both the PD and CCD are moved so that the optical path length is unchanged and the light reflects once from the CCD; the PD current ratio gives R. Unlike traditional schemes this approach makes only one reflection from the CCD surface. Since the reflectivity of the LBNL CCDs might be as low as 2 percent this increases the signal to noise ratio dramatically. The goal is a 1 percent accuracy. We obtain good agreement between 1 - R and the direct QE results.