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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Literature Review and Analysis of Waterless Fracturing Methods:

  • Author(s): Moridis, George
  • et al.

This report provides a brief literature review and analysis of several waterless fracturing methods. The methods included in this report are: Liquid CO2/Sand Fracturing; Straight Nitrogen Based Fracturing; Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fracturing; Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Fracturing; as well as Explosives and Propellant-Based Fracturing. Additional non-water carrier fluids are also identified. A discussion on CO2-Foam Fracturing is given in the separate LBNL report mentioned above (Wan, 2017). The strengths and limitations of each non-water fracture stimulation carrier fluid are described below, and insights are provided on the characteristics of geologic formations amenable to the use of each fluid.

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