A Comparison of Patient History- and EKG-based Cardiac Risk Scores.
- Author(s): Miller, Andrew C
- Obermeyer, Ziad
- Mullainathan, Sendhil
- et al.
Patient-specific risk scores are used to identify individuals at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Typically, risk scores are based on patient habits and medical history - age, sex, race, smoking behavior, and prior vital signs and diagnoses. We explore an alternative source of information, a patient's raw electrocardiogram recording, and develop a score of patient risk for various outcomes. We compare models that predict adverse cardiac outcomes following an emergency department visit, and show that a learned representation (e.g. deep neural network) of raw EKG waveforms can improve prediction over traditional risk factors. Further, we show that a simple model based on segmented heart beats performs as well or better than a complex convolutional network recently shown to reliably automate arrhythmia detection in EKGs. We analyze a large cohort of emergency department patients and show evidence that EKG-derived scores can be more robust to patient heterogeneity.