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Interaction of a fluorescent analogue of GDP with elongation factor Tu: steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies.


A fluorescent derivative of GDP was prepared by the reaction of 2'-amino-2'-deoxy-GDP with fluorescamine. This derivative binds tightly (KD approximately 4.5 X 10(-8) M) to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) from Escherichia coli. The emission properties, including spectra, polarizations, and lifetimes, for fluorescamine-GDP free in solution and bound to EF-Tu are presented. Emission data on the fluorescamine-ethylamine conjugate are also given. A multifrequency phase and modulation lifetime study (using nine modulation frequencies over the range of 2-80 MHz) indicated that the emissions of these three systems were well characterized by single exponential decays corresponding to 1.45 ns for the fluorescamine-ethylamine derivative in buffer and to 7.74 and 11.03 ns for the fluorescamine-GDP derivative free in buffer and bound to EF-Tu, respectively. Multifrequency differential polarized phase fluorometry results indicated a rotational relaxation time of the protein-probe complex of approximately 88 ns; these data also indicated the lack of significant local motion for the probe. Addition of excess GDP to the EF-Tu-probe complex led to displacement of the fluorescamine-GDP derivative as evidenced by the change in both the steady-state and dynamic polarization values. The observed increase in fluorescence intensity upon displacement allowed us to follow the kinetics of the dissociation reaction; a dissociation rate constant of 5.0 X 10(-3) S-1 was determined. These results demonstrate the utility of this 2'-amino-2'-deoxy-GDP analogue as a probe of guanosine nucleotide dependent systems.

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