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Race/Ethnic Differences in Outcomes Among Hospitalized Medicare Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.
- Author(s): Ziaeian, Boback;
- Heidenreich, Paul A;
- Xu, Haolin;
- DeVore, Adam D;
- Matsouaka, Roland A;
- Hernandez, Adrian F;
- Bhatt, Deepak L;
- Yancy, Clyde W;
- Fonarow, Gregg C
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2017.02.012
ObjectivesThis study analyzed HFpEF patient characteristics and clinical outcomes according to race/ethnicity and adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics along with socioeconomic status (SES).
BackgroundThe proportion of hospitalizations for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has increased over the last decade. Whether the short- and long-term outcomes differ between racial/ethnic groups is not well described.
MethodsThe Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry was linked to Medicare administrative data to identify hospitalized patients with HFpEF ≥65 years of age with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% between 2006 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were used to report hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day and 1-year readmission and mortality rates with sequential adjustments for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES.
ResultsThe final cohort included 53,065 patients with HFpEF. Overall 30-day mortality was 5.87%; at 1 year, it was 33.1%. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate was 22.2%, and it was 67.0% at 1 year. After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES, 30-day mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98; p = 0.031) and Hispanic patients (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p = 0.017) compared with white patients. One-year mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.99; p = 0.031), Hispanic patients (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.91; p < 0.001), and Asian patients (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.88; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. Black patients had a higher risk of readmission at 30 days (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.012) and 1 year (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.001) compared with white patients.
ConclusionsBlack, Hispanic, and Asian patients had a lower mortality risk after a hospitalization for HFpEF compared with white patients; black patients had higher readmission rates. These differences in mortality and readmission risk according to race/ethnicity persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics, SES, and hospital factors.
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