Multi-photon excitation in uncaging the small molecule bioregulator nitric oxide
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2012.0129
Multi-photon excitation allows one to use tissue transmitting near-infrared (NIR) light to access excited states with energies corresponding to single-photon excitation in the visible or ultraviolet wavelength ranges. Here, we present an overview of the application of both simultaneous and sequential multi-photon excitation in studies directed towards the photochemical delivery ('uncaging') of bioactive small molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) to physiological targets. Particular focus will be directed towards the use of dyes with high two-photon absorption cross sections and lanthanide ion-doped upconverting nanoparticles as sensitizers to facilitate the uncaging of NO using NIR excitation.