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Six Flags over Luna: The Role of Flags in Moon Landing Conspiracy Theories

Creative Commons 'BY-NC-ND' version 3.0 license

According to historians, twelve American astronauts explored the surface of the Moon between 1969 and 1972.  During their time on the lunar surface each Apollo crew deployed a special flag pole, leaving a total of six American flags on the surface of the Moon.  Or did they?  Since the 1970s conspiracy theories have emerged which claim that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) faked the moon landings.  Much of the evidence used by the conspiracy theorists consists of photographs and films released by NASA during the Apollo Program.  Not surprisingly, the flags have played a major role in the argument that the moon landings were an elaborate hoax.  This paper will examine the claims of the conspiracy theorists, especially those related to flags, and will provide explanations in support of the historical reality of the Apollo missions.

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