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Controlling and Autonomy-Supportive Parenting in the United States and China: Beyond Children's Reports.


Research comparing the predictive power of parents' control and autonomy support in the United States and China has relied almost exclusively on children's reports. Such reports may lead to inaccurate conclusions if they do not reflect parents' practices to the same extent in the two countries. A total of 394 American and Chinese children (Mage  = 13.19 years) and their mothers reported on mothers' controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting in the academic arena; trained observers coded such parenting in the laboratory. Children's reports were associated modestly with mothers' reports and weakly, if at all, with observers' reports in both the United States and China. Parenting predicted children's academic and emotional functioning similarly in the two countries, irrespective of reporter.

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