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Treatment of adults with intracranial hemorrhage on apixaban or rivaroxaban with prothrombin complex concentrate products


To analyze the efficacy and safety of activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCC) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4F-PCC) to prevent hematoma expansion in patients taking apixaban or rivaroxaban with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this multicenter, retrospective study, sixty-seven ICH patients who received aPCC or 4F-PCC for known use of apixaban or rivaroxaban between February 2014 and September 2018 were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who achieved excellent/good or poor hemostasis after administration of aPCC or 4F-PCC. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, thromboembolic events during admission, and transfusion requirements. Excellent/good hemostasis was achieved in 87% of aPCC patients, 89% of low-dose 4F-PCC [< 30 units per kilogram (kg)], and 89% of high-dose 4F-PCC (≥ 30 units per kg). There were no significant differences in excellent/good or poor hemostatic efficacy (p = 0.362). No differences were identified in transfusions 6 h prior (p = 0.087) or 12 h after (p = 0.178) the reversal agent. Mortality occurred in five patients, with no differences among the groups (p = 0.838). There were no inpatient thromboembolic events. Both aPCC and 4F-PCC appear safe and equally associated with hematoma stability in patients taking apixaban or rivaroxaban who present with ICH. Prospective studies are needed to identify a superior reversal agent when comparing andexanet alfa to hospital standard of care (4F-PCC or aPCC) and to further explore the optimal dosing strategy for patients with ICH associated with apixaban or rivaroxaban use.

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