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Adverse pathology and undetectable ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy: is adjuvant radiation warranted?

  • Author(s): Simon, Ross M
  • Howard, Lauren E
  • Freedland, Stephen J
  • Aronson, William J
  • Terris, Martha K
  • Kane, Christopher J
  • Amling, Christopher L
  • Cooperberg, Matthew R
  • Vidal, Adriana C
  • et al.
Abstract

To determine if men with adverse pathology but undetectable ultrasensitive (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA are at high-risk for biochemical recurrence (BCR), or if there is a subset of patients at low-risk for whom the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy might be limited.We evaluated 411 patients treated with RP from 2001 to 2013 without adjuvant radiation who had an undetectable (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA level after RP but with adverse pathology [positive surgical margins (PSMs), extraprostatic extension (EPE), and/or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI)]. Multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the relationship between pathological characteristics and BCR to identify groups of men at highest risk of early BCR.On multivariable analysis, only pathological Gleason 7 (4 + 3), Gleason ≥8, and SVI independently predicted BCR (P = 0.019, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively), although on two-way analysis men with Gleason 7 (4 + 3) did not have significantly higher rates of BCR compared with patients with Gleason ≤6 (log-rank, P = 0.074). Men with either Gleason ≥8 (with PSMs or EPE) or SVI (15% of the cohort) defined a high-risk group vs men without these characteristics (3-year BCR risk of 50.4% vs 11.9%, log-rank, P < 0.001).Among men with adverse pathology but an undetectable (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA level after RP, the benefits of adjuvant radiation are probably limited except for men with Gleason 8-10 (with PSMs or EPE) or SVI who are at high-risk of early BCR.

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