Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of lumbosacral epidural bupivacaine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs: The effects of two volumes of 0.25% solution
- Author(s): Gonçalves Dias, RS
- Neves Soares, JH
- Santos e Castro, DD
- Albuquerque Gress, MAKD
- Machado, ML
- Otero, PE
- Ascoli, FO
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195867
© 2018 Dias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and respiratory effects of two volumes of bupivacaine 0.25% (0.2 mL kg-1—treatment BUP02—and 0.4 mL kg-1–treatment BUP04) administered epidurally at the lumbosacral intervertebral space in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. This experimental prospective randomized crossover design trial used six mixed breed adult dogs, four neutered males and two spayed females. Each dog was anesthetized on three different occasions: the first for isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) measurement, and the following two assigned treatments (BUP02 or BUP04). On the two treatment days, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane at 1.3 MAC during the experiments. Cardiovascular and respiratory measurements were recorded before (T0) and 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after the epidural administration of bupivacaine. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by a mixed-model ANOVA and Friedman’s test when appropriate followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test or Dunnet’s test to compare time points within each treatment with T0 (p < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure decreased significantly from 15 to 90 minutes after the administration of BUP02 and from 5 to 60 minutes in BUP04, with lower values in BUP04 than in BUP02 lasting up to 30 minutes after bupivacaine administration. No significant changes in cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance were observed in either treatment. Hypoventilation was only detected in BUP04. Hemoglobin concentration and arterial oxygen content decreased after both treatment of bupivacaine with no significant decrease in oxygen delivery. Two dogs in BUP04 developed Horner’s syndrome. The epidural administration of 0.4 mL.kg-1of bupivacaine to dogs in sternal recumbency anesthetized with isoflurane 1.3 MAC caused more cardiovascular and respiratory depression than 0.2 mL.kg-1
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