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Trends in Living Donation by Race and Ethnicity Among Children With End-stage Renal Disease in the United States, 1995-2015.



Living donor kidney transplants have declined among adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with increases in racial/ethnic disparities over time. Secular trends in racial/ethnic disparities in living donor kidney transplantation have not been well studied in children.


Using multivariable Cox modeling, we examined changes in living donor kidney transplant rates over time and probability of receiving living donor kidney transplantation within 2 years of incident ESRD by race/ethnicity among 19 772 children in the US Renal Data System, 1995-2015. We also examined racial/ethnic concordance between donors and recipients.


Overall, living donor kidney transplant rates declined by 3% annually since 1995 for all racial/ethnic groups except Asians for whom living donor kidney transplant rates remained stable; however, disparities persist. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, Hispanics were 42% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.67), Asians 39% less likely (0.61; 0.47-0.79), and blacks 66% less likely (0.34; 0.28-0.42) to receive living kidney donor transplantation within 2 years, even when accounting for deceased donor transplantation as a competing risk. Additionally, while 95% of non-Hispanic white children had non-Hispanic white donors, only 56% of Asian recipients had Asian donors (P < 0.001). Asian recipients were more likely to have nonrelated donors (P < 0.001).


There are ongoing declines in living donation for children with ESRD for uncertain reasons, and minority populations experience significantly reduced access to timely living donor transplant, even when accounting for changes in deceased donation and donor-recipient relationships.

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