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Carfilzomib‐associated pulmonary arterial hypertension in multiple myeloma


Drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is constantly evolving as new drugs are developed. Carfilzomib is a recently approved therapy for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. While it has been associated with cardiovascular adverse events, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure, PAH has not been a well-described side effect. We present two patients who developed PAH associated with initiation of carfilzomib. They both initially presented with severe dyspnea, had elevated right ventricular systolic pressure on transthoracic echocardiography and ultimately underwent right heart catheterization. With discontinuation of carfilzomib, both patients had improvement in hemodynamics. However, one patient required initiation of PAH-targeted therapies and has had worsening right ventricular function again despite permanent discontinuation of carfilzomib. It is important to recognize the association between carfilzomib and PAH. Echocardiography can be an important initial screening tool. PAH from carfilzomib therapy may be reversible, especially if diagnosed early; however, extended follow-up is essential.

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