Transit-Based Smart Parking in the San Francisco Bay Area: an Assessment of User Demand and Behavioral Effects
This paper presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to increase effective parking capacity at a transit station during the first half of 2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (CA). It begins with an extensive review of the literature related to transit-based smart parking management systems to illustrate the range of system configurations and their potential travel, economic, and environmental effects. Two important conclusions from this review are: (1) lack of parking spaces at transit stations may be a significant constraint to transit use and (2) pre-trip and, perhaps, enroute information on parking availability at transit stations may increase transit use to gain insight into parking information needs, the travel effects of a new monthly paid parking program, and the potential travel effects of a smart parking service. First, it was found that a potential market exists for a daily paid parking information service among current and new riders with relatively high incomes, high auto availability, and variable work locations and schedules. Second, the current monthly reserved paid parking service may have increased the frequency of BART use among subscribers, but it has not reduced net auto travel because of diversions to BART from carpool, bus, and bike modes for their main commute and increased drive alone access to the BART station.