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Determinants in HIV-2 Env and tetherin required for functional interaction.

  • Author(s): Exline, Colin M
  • Yang, Su Jung
  • Haworth, Kevin G
  • Rengarajan, Srinivas
  • Lopez, Lisa A
  • Droniou, Magali E
  • Seclen, Eduardo
  • Cannon, Paula M
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

The interferon-inducible factor BST-2/tetherin blocks the release of nascent virions from the surface of infected cells for certain enveloped virus families. The primate lentiviruses have evolved several counteracting mechanisms which, in the case of HIV-2, is a function of its Env protein. We sought to further understand the features of the Env protein and tetherin that are important for this interaction, and to evaluate the selective pressure on HIV-2 to maintain such an activity.

Results

By examining Env mutants with changes in the ectodomain of the protein (virus ROD14) or the cytoplasmic tail (substitution Y707A) that render the proteins unable to counteract tetherin, we determined that an interaction between Env and tetherin is important for this activity. Furthermore, this Env-tetherin interaction required an alanine face in the tetherin ectodomain, although insertion of this domain into an artificial tetherin-like protein was not sufficient to confer sensitivity to the HIV-2 Env. The replication of virus carrying the ROD14 substitutions was significantly slower than the matched wild-type virus, but it acquired second-site mutations during passaging in the cytoplasmic tail of Env which restored the ability of the protein to both bind to and counteract tetherin.

Conclusions

These results shed light on the interaction between HIV-2 and tetherin, suggesting a physical interaction that maps to the ectodomains of both proteins and indicating a strong selection pressure to maintain an anti-tetherin activity in the HIV-2 Env.

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