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Trends in incidence, management, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the United States.

  • Author(s): Kolte, Dhaval
  • Khera, Sahil
  • Aronow, Wilbert S
  • Mujib, Marjan
  • Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar
  • Sule, Sachin
  • Jain, Diwakar
  • Gotsis, William
  • Ahmed, Ali
  • Frishman, William H
  • Fonarow, Gregg C
  • et al.


Limited information is available on the contemporary and potentially changing trends in the incidence, management, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods and results

We queried the 2003-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients ≥ 40 years of age with STEMI and cardiogenic shock. Overall and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific trends in incidence of cardiogenic shock, early mechanical revascularization, and intra-aortic balloon pump use, and inhospital mortality were analyzed. From 2003 to 2010, among 1 990 486 patients aged ≥ 40 years with STEMI, 157 892 (7.9%) had cardiogenic shock. The overall incidence rate of cardiogenic shock in patients with STEMI increased from 6.5% in 2003 to 10.1% in 2010 (P(trend)<0.001). There was an increase in early mechanical revascularization (30.4% to 50.7%, P(trend)<0.001) and intra-aortic balloon pump use (44.8% to 53.7%, P(trend)<0.001) in these patients over the 8-year period. Inhospital mortality decreased significantly, from 44.6% to 33.8% (P(trend)<0.001; adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.75), whereas the average total hospital cost increased from $35 892 to $45 625 (P(trend)<0.001) during the study period. There was no change in the average length of stay (P(trend)=0.394). These temporal trends were similar in patients <75 and ≥ 75 years of age, men and women, and across each racial/ethnic group.


The incidence of cardiogenic shock complicating STEMI has increased during the past 8 years together with increased use of early mechanical revascularization and intra-aortic balloon pumps. There has been a concomitant decrease in risk-adjusted inhospital mortality, but an increase in total hospital costs during this period.

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