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New insights on yeast and filamentous fungus adhesion in a natural co-immobilization system: proposed advances and applications in wine industry


Fungi possess extraordinary strength in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces. This review focuses on adhesion mechanisms of yeast and filamentous fungi and the proposed combination of the adhesive forces of both organisms in an immobilization system called yeast biocapsules, whereby Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are attached to the hyphae of Penicillium chrysogenum. The natural adherent properties of each organism, one multicellular and another unicellular, allow yeast to be fixated securely on the filamentous fungi and complete alcoholic fermentation. Following alcoholic fermentation, the hyphae become an inert support for yeast cells while maintaining shape and integrity. Biocapsules have been used successfully in both wine and bioethanol production. Investigation of the potential genes involved in fungal-yeast fusion suggests that natural hydrophobic interactions of both organisms play a major role. Analysis of the possible mechanisms involved in fungus and yeast adhesion, future perspectives on improving yeast immobilization, and proposed applications of the biocapsules are explored.

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