Design and testing of a control strategy for a large naturally ventilated office
The design for the new Federal Building for San Francisco includes an office tower that is to be naturally ventilated. Each floor is designed to be cross-ventilated, through upper windows that are controlled by the building management system (BMS). Users have control over lower windows, which can be as much as 50 percent of the total openable area. There are significant differences in the performance and the control of the windward and leeward sides of the building, and separate monitoring and control strategies are determined for each side. The performance and control of the building has been designed and tested using a modified version of EnergyPlus. Results from studies with EnergyPlus and CFD are used in designing the control strategy. EnergyPlus was extended to model a simplified version of the airflow pattern determined using CFD. Wind-driven cross-ventilation produces a main jet through the upper openings of the building, across the ceiling from the windward to the leeward side. Below this jet, the occupied regions are subject to a recirculating air flow. Results show that temperatures within the building are predicted to be satisfactory, provided a suitable control strategy is implemented uses night cooling in periods of hot weather. The control strategy has 10 window opening modes. EnergyPlus was extended to simulate the effects of these modes, and to assess the effects of different forms of user behavior. The results show how user behavior can significantly influence the building performance.