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The need for higher-order averaging in the stability analysis of hovering, flapping-wing flight

  • Author(s): Taha, HE
  • Tahmasian, S
  • Woolsey, CA
  • Nayfeh, AH
  • Hajj, MR
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. Because of the relatively high flapping frequency associated with hovering insects and flapping wing micro-air vehicles (FWMAVs), dynamic stability analysis typically involves direct averaging of the time-periodic dynamics over a flapping cycle. However, direct application of the averaging theorem may lead to false conclusions about the dynamics and stability of hovering insects and FWMAVs. Higher-order averaging techniques may be needed to understand the dynamics of flapping wing flight and to analyze its stability. We use second-order averaging to analyze the hovering dynamics of five insects in response to high-amplitude, high-frequency, periodic wing motion. We discuss the applicability of direct averaging versus second-order averaging for these insects.

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