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Epigenetic clock and DNA methylation analysis of porcine models of aging and obesity.

Abstract

DNA-methylation profiles have been used successfully to develop highly accurate biomarkers of age, epigenetic clocks, for many species. Using a custom methylation array, we generated DNA methylation data from n = 238 porcine tissues including blood, bladder, frontal cortex, kidney, liver, and lung, from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and minipigs (Wisconsin Miniature Swine™). Samples used in this study originated from Large White X Landrace crossbred pigs, Large White X Minnesota minipig crossbred pigs, and Wisconsin Miniature Swine™. We present 4 epigenetic clocks for pigs that are distinguished by their compatibility with tissue type (pan-tissue and blood clock) and species (pig and human). Two dual-species human-pig pan-tissue clocks accurately measure chronological age and relative age, respectively. We also characterized CpGs that differ between minipigs and domestic pigs. Strikingly, several genes implicated by our epigenetic studies of minipig status overlap with genes (ADCY3, TFAP2B, SKOR1, and GPR61) implicated by genetic studies of body mass index in humans. In addition, CpGs with different levels of methylation between the two pig breeds were identified proximal to genes involved in blood LDL levels and cholesterol synthesis, of particular interest given the minipig's increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease compared to domestic pigs. Thus, breed-specific differences of domestic and minipigs may potentially help to identify biological mechanisms underlying weight gain and aging-associated diseases. Our porcine clocks are expected to be useful for elucidating the role of epigenetics in aging and obesity, and the testing of anti-aging interventions.

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