Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ mediates bisphenol A inhibition of FSH-stimulated IGF-1, aromatase, and estradiol in human granulosa cells
- Author(s): Kwintkiewicz, J
- Nishi, Y
- Yanase, T
- Giudice, LC
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901161
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used as a plasticizer, is a potent endocrine disruptor that, even in low concentrations, disturbs normal development and functions of reproductive organs in different species. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether BPA affects human ovarian granulosa cell function. METHODS: We treated KGN granulosa cells and granulosa cells from subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), BPA, or BPA plus FSH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We then evaluated expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aromatase, and transcription factors known to mediate aromatase induction by FSH [including steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), GATA4, cAMP response element binding protein-1 (CREB-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)], as well as 17β-estradiol (E2) secretion. KGN cells were transfected with a PPARγ-containing vector, followed by assessment of aromatase and IGF-I expression. RESULTS: BPA reduced FSH-induced IGF-1 and aromatase expression and E2 secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. Similar effects on aromatase were observed in IVF granulosa cells. SF-1 and GATA4, but not CREB-1, were reduced after BPA treatment, although PPARγ, an inhibitor of aromatase, was significantly up-regulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner, with simultaneous decrease of aromatase. Over expression of PPARγ in KGN cells reduced FSH-stimulated aromatase and IGF-1 mRNAs, with increasing concentrations of the transfected expression vector, mimicking BPA action. Also, BPA reduced granulosa cell DNA synthesis without changing DNA fragmentation, suggesting that BPA does not induce apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data demonstrate that BPA induces PPARγ, which mediates down-regulation of FSH-stimulated IGF-1, SF-1, GATA4, aromatase, and E 2 in human granulosa cells. These observations support a potential role of altered steroidogenesis and proliferation within the ovarian follicular compartment due to this endocrine disruptor.
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