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The Simulated Indian Monsoon: A GCM Sensitivity Study

  • Author(s): Fennessy, MJ
  • Kinter, JL
  • Kirtman, B
  • Marx, L
  • Nigam, S
  • Schneider, E
  • Shukla, J
  • Straus, D
  • Vernekar, A
  • Xue, Y
  • Zhou, J
  • et al.
Abstract

The authors find that the deficiency of the model precipitation simulation may be attributed to the use of an enhanced orography in the integrations. Replacement of this orography with a mean orography results in a much more realistic simulation of Indian monsoon circulation and rainfall. Experiments with a linear primitive equation model on the sphere suggest that this striking improvement is due to modulations of the orographically forced waves in the lower troposphere. This improvement in the monsoon simulation is due to the kinematic and dynamical effects of changing the topography, rather than the thermal effects, which were minimal. The magnitude of the impact on the Indian monsoon of the other sensitivity experiments varied considerably but was consistently less than the impact of using the mean orography. However, results from the soil moisture sensitivity experiments suggest a possibly important role for soil moisture in simulating tropical precipitation. -from Authors

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