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Azide-based fluorescent probes: imaging hydrogen sulfide in living systems.


Hydrogen sulfide is a redox active sulfur species that is endogenously generated in mammalian systems as an antioxidant and signaling molecule to support cellular function. The fundamental and ubiquitous actions of hydrogen sulfide demand sensitive and specific methods to track this biomolecule as it is produced within living organisms with temporal and spatial regulation. In this context, the hydrogen sulfide-mediated reduction of an azide to an amine is a useful method for organic synthesis, and this reaction has successfully been exploited to yield biocompatible fluorescent probes for hydrogen sulfide detection in vitro and in cells. This chapter provides protocols and guidelines for applying azide-based fluorescence probes to detecting hydrogen sulfide in living systems, including a protocol that was used to detect endogenous hydrogen sulfide in living single cells using a confocal microscope.

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