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Whole-genome landscape of mucosal melanoma reveals diverse drivers and therapeutic targets.

  • Author(s): Newell, Felicity
  • Kong, Yan
  • Wilmott, James S
  • Johansson, Peter A
  • Ferguson, Peter M
  • Cui, Chuanliang
  • Li, Zhongwu
  • Kazakoff, Stephen H
  • Burke, Hazel
  • Dodds, Tristan J
  • Patch, Ann-Marie
  • Nones, Katia
  • Tembe, Varsha
  • Shang, Ping
  • van der Weyden, Louise
  • Wong, Kim
  • Holmes, Oliver
  • Lo, Serigne
  • Leonard, Conrad
  • Wood, Scott
  • Xu, Qinying
  • Rawson, Robert V
  • Mukhopadhyay, Pamela
  • Dummer, Reinhard
  • Levesque, Mitchell P
  • Jönsson, Göran
  • Wang, Xuan
  • Yeh, Iwei
  • Wu, Hong
  • Joseph, Nancy
  • Bastian, Boris C
  • Long, Georgina V
  • Spillane, Andrew J
  • Shannon, Kerwin F
  • Thompson, John F
  • Saw, Robyn PM
  • Adams, David J
  • Si, Lu
  • Pearson, John V
  • Hayward, Nicholas K
  • Waddell, Nicola
  • Mann, Graham J
  • Guo, Jun
  • Scolyer, Richard A
  • et al.
Abstract

Knowledge of key drivers and therapeutic targets in mucosal melanoma is limited due to the paucity of comprehensive mutation data on this rare tumor type. To better understand the genomic landscape of mucosal melanoma, here we describe whole genome sequencing analysis of 67 tumors and validation of driver gene mutations by exome sequencing of 45 tumors. Tumors have a low point mutation burden and high numbers of structural variants, including recurrent structural rearrangements targeting TERT, CDK4 and MDM2. Significantly mutated genes are NRAS, BRAF, NF1, KIT, SF3B1, TP53, SPRED1, ATRX, HLA-A and CHD8. SF3B1 mutations occur more commonly in female genital and anorectal melanomas and CTNNB1 mutations implicate a role for WNT signaling defects in the genesis of some mucosal melanomas. TERT aberrations and ATRX mutations are associated with alterations in telomere length. Mutation profiles of the majority of mucosal melanomas suggest potential susceptibility to CDK4/6 and/or MEK inhibitors.

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