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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Transit-Based Smart Parking in the U.S.: Behavioral Analysis of San Francisco Bay Area Field Test


This paper presents the evaluation of the commute travel effects of the first transit-based smart parking project in the U.S. at the Rockridge Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in Oakland, California. The following are key findings from the analysis of participant survey travel results: 1) sizable increases in BART mode share (an average increase of 5.5 and 4.0 more BART trips per month for on-site and off-site commutes, respectively); 2) reductions in drive alone modal share (30.8 and 56%, across frequencies, would have driven to on-site and off-site work locations, respectively, without smart parking); 3) decreased average commute time (47.5 minutes using smart parking and BART compared to in 50.1 minutes without smart parking); and 4) reduction in total vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (on average, 9.7 fewer VMT per participant per month).

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