Experimental study of cryogen spray properties for application in dermatologic laser surgery.
- Author(s): Aguilar, Guillermo
- Majaron, Boris
- Karapetian, Emil
- Lavernia, Enrique J
- Nelson, J Stuart
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1109/tbme.2003.813537
Cryogenic sprays are used for cooling human skin during laser dermatologic surgery. In this paper, six straight-tube nozzles are characterized by photographs of cryogenic spray shapes, as well as measurements of average droplet diameter, velocity, and temperature. A single-droplet evaporation model to predict average spray droplet diameter and temperature is tested using the experimental data presented here. The results show two distinct spray patterns--sprays for 1.4-mm-diameter nozzles (wide nozzles) show significantly larger average droplet diameters and higher temperatures as a function of distance from the nozzle compared with those for 0.5-0.8-mm-diameter nozzles (narrow nozzles). These results complement and support previously reported studies, indicating that wide nozzles induce more efficient heat extraction than the narrow nozzles.