DETERMINATION OF LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMITS OF MIXTURES OF AIR AND GASEOUS RENEWABLE FUELS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES
- Author(s): Jaimes, Daniel Jimmy
- Advisor(s): Samuelsen, Scott
- et al.
Experimental studies of lean flammability limits (LFLs) for methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, in addition to mixtures of these gases (i.e. CH4/H2, H2/CO, and CH4/CO2) were performed at temperatures up to 200° C and pressures up to 9 bar. ASTM Standard E918 (1983) provided the framework for tests at these elevated conditions, using a one-liter pressure-rated test cylinder in which the fuel-air mixtures were prepared and then ignited. Flammability is determined using a 7% and 5% pressure rise criterion per the ASTM E918 and European EN 1839 standards, respectively. The LFLs for each gas and gas mixture are found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature in the temperature range tested. The LFLs of hydrogen and mixtures containing hydrogen are observed to increase with an increase in the initial pressure, whereas the LFLs of all other mixtures exhibit a negligible dependence on pressure. For mixtures, predicted LFL values obtained using Le Chatelier’s mixing rule are fairly consistent with the experimentally determined values near ambient conditions, however it is not recommended for use at elevated pressure and/or temperature. The purpose for characterizing the flammability limits for these gaseous mixtures is to extend the results to developing appropriate procedures for the safe industrial use of renewable gases, such as bio-derived methane, biogas composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, and renewably derived syngas which contains large quantities of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas.