Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine
- Author(s): Samuelsen, GS
- Therkelsen, P
- Werts, T
- McDonell, V
- et al.
A commercially available natural gas fueled gas turbine engine was operated on hydrogen. Three sets of fuel injectors were developed to facilitate stable operation while generating differing levels of fuel/air premixing. One set was designed to produce near uniform mixing while the others have differing degrees of non-uniformity. The emissions performance of the engine over its full range of loads is characterized for each of the injector sets. In addition, the performance is also assessed for the set with near uniform mixing as operated on natural gas. The results show that improved mixing and lower equivalence ratio decreases NO emission levels as expected. However, even with nearly perfect premixing, it is found that the engine, when operated on hydrogen, produces a higher amount of NO than when operated with natural gas. Much of this attributed to the higher equivalence ratios that the engine operates on when firing hydrogen. However, even at the lowest equivalence ratios run at low power conditions, higher NO was observed. Analysis of the potential NO formation effects of residence time, kinetic pathways of NO production via NNH, and the kinetics of the dilute combustion strategy used are evaluated. While no one mechanism appears to explain the reasons for the higher NO, it is concluded that each may be contributing to the higher NO emissions observed with hydrogen. In the present configuration with the commercial control system operating normally, it is evident that system level effects are also contributing to the observed NO emission differences between hydrogen and natural gas. ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air Volume 3: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions, Parts A and B Berlin, Germany, June 9–13, 2008 Conference Sponsors: International Gas Turbine Institute ISBN: 978-0-7918-4313-0 | eISBN: 0-7918-3824-2 Copyright © 2008 by ASME
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