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Synchronized Biventricular Heart Pacing in a Closed-chest Porcine Model based on Wirelessly Powered Leadless Pacemakers.


About 30% of patients with impaired cardiac function have ventricular dyssynchrony and seek cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In this study, we demonstrate synchronized biventricular (BiV) pacing in a leadless fashion by implementing miniaturized and wirelessly powered pacemakers. With their flexible form factors, two pacemakers were implanted epicardially on the right and left ventricles of a porcine model and were inductively powered at 13.56 MHz and 40.68 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, respectively. The power consumption of these pacemakers is reduced to µW-level by a novel integrated circuit design, which considerably extends the maximum operating distance. Leadless BiV pacing is demonstrated for the first time in both open-chest and closed-chest porcine settings. The clinical outcomes associated with different interventricular delays are verified through electrophysiologic and hemodynamic responses. The closed-chest pacing only requires the external source power of 0.3 W and 0.8 W at 13.56 MHz and 40.68 MHz, respectively, which leads to specific absorption rates (SARs) 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the safety regulation limit. This work serves as a basis for future wirelessly powered leadless pacemakers that address various cardiac resynchronization challenges.

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