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Linear and Branched Glyco-Lipopeptide Vaccines Follow Distinct Cross-Presentation Pathways and Generate Different Magnitudes of Antitumor Immunity

  • Author(s): Renaudet, Olivier;
  • Dasgupta, Gargi;
  • Bettahi, Ilham;
  • Shi, Alda;
  • Nesburn, Anthony B.;
  • Dumy, Pascal;
  • BenMohamed, Lbachir
  • et al.
Creative Commons 'BY' version 4.0 license
Abstract

Background

Glyco-lipopeptides, a form of lipid-tailed glyco-peptide, are currently under intense investigation as B- and T-cell based vaccine immunotherapy for many cancers. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of glyco-lipopeptides (GLPs) immunogenicity and the position of the lipid moiety on immunogenicity and protective efficacy of GLPs remain to be determined.

Methods/Principal Findings

We have constructed two structural analogues of HER-2 glyco-lipopeptide (HER-GLP) by synthesizing a chimeric peptide made of one universal CD4+ epitope (PADRE) and one HER-2 CD8+ T-cell epitope (HER420–429). The C-terminal end of the resulting CD4–CD8 chimeric peptide was coupled to a tumor carbohydrate B-cell epitope, based on a regioselectively addressable functionalized templates (RAFT), made of four α-GalNAc molecules. The resulting HER glyco-peptide (HER-GP) was then linked to a palmitic acid moiety, attached either at the N-terminal end (linear HER-GLP-1) or in the middle between the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes (branched HER-GLP-2). We have investigated the uptake, processing and cross-presentation pathways of the two HER-GLP vaccine constructs, and assessed whether the position of linkage of the lipid moiety would affect the B- and T-cell immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization of mice revealed that the linear HER-GLP-1 induced a stronger and longer lasting HER420–429-specific IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cell response, while the branched HER-GLP-2 induced a stronger tumor-specific IgG response. The linear HER-GLP-1 was taken up easily by dendritic cells (DCs), induced stronger DCs maturation and produced a potent TLR- 2-dependent T-cell activation. The linear and branched HER-GLP molecules appeared to follow two different cross-presentation pathways. While regression of established tumors was induced by both linear HER-GLP-1 and branched HER-GLP-2, the inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher in HER-GLP-1 immunized mice (p<0.005).

Significance

These findings have important implications for the development of effective GLP based immunotherapeutic strategies against cancers.

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