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Structure and elemental composition of Ceftriaxone induced pediatric nephrolithiasis.


Ceftriaxone is a widely used antibiotic because to its broad-spectrum gram-negative coverage, safety, and biological half life (5-9 h) permit dose once-daily administration. It is specifically used in pediatric patients in developing countries. Ceftriaxone forms insoluble sludge/stone when combined with calcium in the urinary system. In this study, Ceftriaxone induced sludge/stones from pediatric patients were collected to identify its microstructure and composition to gather insights into the mechanism of Ceftriaxone induced sludge/stone formation. The results illustrated that Ceftriaxone induced stones formed rapidly following antibiotic administration. Ceftriaxone calcium salt crystals could easily be broken with minimal intervention. However, Ceftriaxone combined with calcium phosphate formed an insoluble stone aggregate.

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