Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

A Simple Methodology to Differentiate Changes in Bioavailability From Changes in Clearance Following Oral Dosing of Metabolized Drugs

Published Web Location

Accurately discriminating changes in clearance (CL) from changes in bioavailability (F) following an oral drug-drug interaction is difficult without carrying out an intravenous interaction study. This may be true for drugs that are clinically significant transporter substrates; however, for interactions that are strictly metabolic, it has been recognized that volume of distribution remains unchanged between both phases of the interaction study. With the understanding that changes in volume of distribution will be minimal for metabolized drugs, the inverse of the change in apparent volume of distribution can provide adequate estimates of the change in bioavailability alone. Utilization of this estimate of F change in tandem with the observed apparent clearance (CL/F) change in an oral drug-drug interaction can provide an estimate of the change in clearance alone. Here, we examine drug-drug interactions involving five known inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 isozyme on victim drugs midazolam and apixaban for which the interaction was carried out both orally and intravenously, allowing for evaluation of this methodology. Predictions of CL and F changes based on oral data were reasonably close to observed changes based on intravenous studies, demonstrating that this simple yet powerful methodology can reasonably differentiate changes in F from changes in CL for oral metabolic drug interactions when only oral data are available. Utilization of this relatively simple methodology to evaluate DDIs for orally dosed drugs will have a significant impact on how DDIs are interpreted from a drug development and regulatory perspective.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View