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Tuning underwater adhesion with cation-π interactions.

  • Author(s): Gebbie, Matthew A
  • Wei, Wei
  • Schrader, Alex M
  • Cristiani, Thomas R
  • Dobbs, Howard A
  • Idso, Matthew
  • Chmelka, Bradley F
  • Waite, J Herbert
  • Israelachvili, Jacob N
  • et al.
Abstract

Cation-π interactions drive the self-assembly and cohesion of many biological molecules, including the adhesion proteins of several marine organisms. Although the origin of cation-π bonds in isolated pairs has been extensively studied, the energetics of cation-π-driven self-assembly in molecular films remains uncharted. Here we use nanoscale force measurements in combination with solid-state NMR spectroscopy to show that the cohesive properties of simple aromatic- and lysine-rich peptides rival those of the strong reversible intermolecular cohesion exhibited by adhesion proteins of marine mussel. In particular, we show that peptides incorporating the amino acid phenylalanine, a functional group that is conspicuously sparing in the sequences of mussel proteins, exhibit reversible adhesion interactions significantly exceeding that of analogous mussel-mimetic peptides. More broadly, we demonstrate that interfacial confinement fundamentally alters the energetics of cation-π-mediated assembly: an insight that should prove relevant for diverse areas, which range from rationalizing biological assembly to engineering peptide-based biomaterials.

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