What if you live in the wrong neighborhood? The impact of residential neighborhood type dissonance on distance traveled
While urban form in general and density in particular are believed by many to significantly influence travel behavior, various recent studies have argued that the true determinants of travel patterns are attitudes rather than land use characteristics. This research builds on this notion and investigates to what extent a lack of congruence between physical neighborhood structure and preferences regarding land use near one's home location (termed 'residential neighborhood type dissonance' or mismatch) affect distance traveled overall and by mode. A conceptual model is described in which the relationship between neighborhood type dissonance and distance traveled is embedded in a wider set of individual and household choices, and tobit models of the influence of neighborhood type mismatch are presented. The results suggest that neighborhood type mismatch should be taken into account in future research as well as in policies attempting to modify travel behavior through land use regulations. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.