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Patent foramen ovale: What cardiologists and neurologists need to know

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In the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO), a transient ischemic attack is indistinguishable from a complex migraine. Both have transient neurologic deficits with a normal MRI. The size of a PFO by echo should not be a criterion for closure. A stroke or peripheral embolus associated with a PFO is the indication for closure. Informed consent for PFO closure should include the warning that about 1 in 500 cases require device removal through open-heart surgery.

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