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Anterior Chamber Angle Assessment Techniques: A Review.


Assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is an essential part of the ophthalmological examination. It is intrinsically related to the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and has a role in its prevention. Although slit-lamp gonioscopy is considered the gold-standard technique for ACA evaluation, its poor reproducibility and the long learning curve are well-known shortcomings. Several new imaging techniques for angle evaluation have been developed in the recent years. However, whether these instruments may replace or not gonioscopy in everyday clinical practice remains unclear. This review summarizes the last findings in ACA evaluation, focusing on new instruments and their application to the clinical practice. Special attention will be given to the comparison between these new techniques and traditional slit-lamp gonioscopy. Whereas ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography provide quantitative measurements of the anterior segment's structures, new gonio-photographic systems allow for a qualitative assessment of angle findings, similarly to gonioscopy. Recently developed deep learning algorithms provide an automated classification of angle images, aiding physicians in taking faster and more efficient decisions. Despite new imaging techniques made analysis of the ACA more objective and practical, the ideal method for ACA evaluation has still to be determined.

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