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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Use and Cessation Services among Individuals in Substance Use Treatment.


Few studies explore racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use and access to cessation services among people with substance use disorders (SUD). We collected data from Hispanics (n = 255), non-Hispanic Whites (n = 195), and non-Hispanic Blacks (n = 126) across 24 Californian residential SUD treatment programs. Data were analyzed via regression models adjusting for demographics, cigarettes per day, past quit attempts, intent to quit in the next 30 days, and physical health status. Non-Hispanic Whites smoked at a higher rate (68.7%) than both Hispanics (54.9%) and non-Hispanic Blacks (55.6%) and smoked more cigarettes per day (M = 11.2, SD = 6.5). Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive a referral to a cessation specialist (adjusted odds ratio; AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.15, 4.78) and tobacco-cessation counseling (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.28, 5.62). Non-Hispanic Blacks were also more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive cessation counseling (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.01, 12.87) and NRT/pharmacotherapy (AOR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.57, 4.47). Despite their decreased smoking prevalence and severity, REMs were accessing smoking cessation services while in treatment, suggesting that SUD treatment could serve as a place to address tobacco-related racial inequities.

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