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Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse

  • Author(s): Cassidy, M
  • Watt, SFL
  • Talling, PJ
  • Palmer, MR
  • Edmonds, M
  • Jutzeler, M
  • Wall-Palmer, D
  • Manga, M
  • Coussens, M
  • Gernon, T
  • Taylor, RN
  • Michalik, A
  • Inglis, E
  • Breitkreuz, C
  • Le Friant, A
  • Ishizuka, O
  • Boudon, G
  • McCanta, MC
  • Adachi, T
  • Hornbach, MJ
  • Colas, SL
  • Endo, D
  • Fujinawa, A
  • Kataoka, KS
  • Maeno, F
  • Tamura, Y
  • Wang, F
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/2015GL064519
No data is associated with this publication.
Abstract

© 2015. The Authors. Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6-10 km3) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ∼130 ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100 years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.

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