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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Fast, large area multiphoton exoscope (FLAME) for macroscopic imaging with microscopic resolution of human skin.

  • Author(s): Fast, Alexander
  • Lal, Akarsh
  • Durkin, Amanda F
  • Lentsch, Griffin
  • Harris, Ronald M
  • Zachary, Christopher B
  • Ganesan, Anand K
  • Balu, Mihaela
  • et al.

We introduce a compact, fast large area multiphoton exoscope (FLAME) system with enhanced molecular contrast for macroscopic imaging of human skin with microscopic resolution. A versatile imaging platform, FLAME combines optical and mechanical scanning mechanisms with deep learning image restoration to produce depth-resolved images that encompass sub-mm2 to cm2 scale areas of tissue within minutes and provide means for a comprehensive analysis of live or resected thick human skin tissue. The FLAME imaging platform, which expands on a design recently introduced by our group, also features time-resolved single photon counting detection to uniquely allow fast discrimination and 3D virtual staining of melanin. We demonstrate its performance and utility by fast ex vivo and in vivo imaging of human skin. With the ability to provide rapid access to depth resolved images of skin over cm2 area and to generate 3D distribution maps of key sub-cellular skin components such as melanocytic dendrites and melanin, FLAME is ready to be translated into a clinical imaging tool for enhancing diagnosis accuracy, guiding therapy and understanding skin biology.

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