UC San Diego
Expectation-based syntactic comprehension
- Author(s): Levy, Roger
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T24-4P9K963-1&_user=4429&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2008&_alid=738466054&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_cdi=4908&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=1&_acct=C000059602&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4429&md5=bb4dd3d2ba7d6e40a82d8d79b6e531e6
This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale [Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Proceedings of NAACL (Vol. 2, pp. 159-166)], in which the difficulty of a word is proportional to its stirprisal (its negative log-probability) in the context within which it appears. This proposal subsumes and clarifies findings that high-constraint contexts can facilitate lexical processing, and connects these findings to well-known models of parallel constraint-based comprehension. In addition, the theory leads to a number of specific predictions about the role of expectation in syntactic comprehension, including the reversal of locality-based difficulty patterns in syntactically constrained contexts, and conditions under which increased ambiguity facilitates processing. The paper examines a range of established results bearing on these predictions, and shows that they are largely consistent with the surprisal theory. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.