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Open Access Publications from the University of California

c-di-GMP modulates type IV MSHA pilus retraction and surface attachment in Vibrio cholerae.

  • Author(s): Floyd, Kyle A
  • Lee, Calvin K
  • Xian, Wujing
  • Nametalla, Mahmoud
  • Valentine, Aneesa
  • Crair, Benjamin
  • Zhu, Shiwei
  • Hughes, Hannah Q
  • Chlebek, Jennifer L
  • Wu, Daniel C
  • Hwan Park, Jin
  • Farhat, Ali M
  • Lomba, Charles J
  • Ellison, Courtney K
  • Brun, Yves V
  • Campos-Gomez, Javier
  • Dalia, Ankur B
  • Liu, Jun
  • Biais, Nicolas
  • Wong, Gerard CL
  • Yildiz, Fitnat H
  • et al.

Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae facilitates environmental persistence, and hyperinfectivity within the host. Biofilm formation is regulated by 3',5'-cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and requires production of the type IV mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. Here, we show that the MSHA pilus is a dynamic extendable and retractable system, and its activity is directly controlled by c-di-GMP. The interaction between c-di-GMP and the ATPase MshE promotes pilus extension, whereas low levels of c-di-GMP correlate with enhanced retraction. Loss of retraction facilitated by the ATPase PilT increases near-surface roaming motility, and impairs initial surface attachment. However, prolonged retraction upon surface attachment results in reduced MSHA-mediated surface anchoring and increased levels of detachment. Our results indicate that c-di-GMP directly controls MshE activity, thus regulating MSHA pilus extension and retraction dynamics, and modulating V. cholerae surface attachment and colonization.

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