Gases as uremic toxins: is there something in the air?
- Author(s): Jankowski, Joachim
- Westhof, Timm
- Vaziri, Nosratola D
- Ingrosso, Diego
- Perna, Alessandra F
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.02.006
The field of uremic toxicity comprises the study of a large number of different substances, classified in relation to various characteristics, for example, protein-binding, dimensions, and so forth. The endogenous compounds of a gaseous nature have received much attention lately from the scientific community because of their increasingly recognized importance in health and disease. Among these substances, some are uremic toxins per se, others are related to uremic toxins, or can become toxic under some circumstances. We divided them into two broad categories: organic and inorganic compounds. Among the organic compounds are phenols, indols, 2-methoxyresorcinol, p-hydroxy hippuric acid and phenyl acetic acid, trimethylamine, and dimethylamine; among the inorganic solutes are ammonia, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide. In this article, these substances are described in relation to the elements that they affect or by which they are affected in uremia, which are the blood, breath, stools, and the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the effect of the dialysis procedure on exhaled gases are described.