Regressed three-dimensional capillary network and inhibited angiogenic factors in the soleus muscle of non-obese rats with type 2 diabetes
Published Web Locationhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-77
Abstract Based on findings obtained using two-dimensional capillary analyses on tissue cross-sections, diabetes has been shown to be associated with a high risk for microangiopathy and capillary regression in skeletal muscles. We visualized the three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks in the soleus muscle of non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and compared them with those of control Wistar rats to provide novel information, e.g., capillary volume, on the capillary networks. In addition, we examined pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression levels in the soleus muscle of GK rats using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR. As expected, plasma glucose levels were higher and insulin levels lower in GK than control rats. The three-dimensional architecture of the capillary networks was regressed and capillary volume was smaller in the soleus muscle of GK compared to control rats. The mRNA expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factors HIF-1α, KDR, Flt-1, ANG-1, and Tie-2 were lower, whereas the level of the anti-angiogenic factor TSP-1 was higher in GK than control rats. These data suggest that a decrease in pro-angiogenic and increase in anti-angiogenic factors may play an important role in type 2 diabetes-induced muscle circulatory complications.