Autonomic mechanism and defects in the glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia
In summary, this article briefly reviews the evidence that three separate autonomic inputs to the islet are capable of stimulating glucagon secretion and that each is activated during IIH. We have reviewed our evidence that these autonomic inputs mediate the glucagon response to IIH, both in non-diabetic animals and humans. Finally, we outline our new preliminary data suggesting an eSIN in an autoimmune animal model of T1DM. We conclude that the glucagon response to IIH is autonomically mediated in non-diabetic animals and humans. We further suggest that at least one of these autonomic inputs, the sympathetic innervation of the islet, is diminished in autoimmune T1DM. These data raise the novel possibility that an autonomic defect contributes to the loss of the glucagon response to IIH in T1DM.