Penicillium marneffei infection in an African man
- Author(s): Yap, Felix Boon-Bin;
- Thevarajah, Suganthi;
- Johar, Asmah
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.5070/D36j96f72f
Penicillium marneffei infection in an African manDepartment of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. email@example.com
Felix Boon-Bin Yap MD MRCP, Suganthi Thevarajah MBBS MMed, Asmah Johar MD MMed
Dermatology Online Journal 16 (7): 2
Penicilliosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Penicillium marneffei. The infection is most commonly seen in Southeast Asia, Southern China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It is rarely seen among individuals of African descent. Here, we report a case of penicilliosis in an African man from Namibia who was studying in Malaysia. He presented with multiple umbilicated papules associated with cough, fever, loss of appetite, and weight. He also had urethral discharge and admitted to unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners. Histopathological examination of a skin papule showed the presence of multiple 2 to 4 µm intracellular yeast cells. Culture of the papule revealed Penicillium marneffei. The serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive. This case illustrates the need to recognize penicilliosis in any individuals staying or travelling to Southeast Asia and the need to look for underlying HIV infection in adults with umbilicated papules.
Penicilliosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by a dimorphic fungus, Penicillium marneffei. The infection is endemic in Southeast Asia, Southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and northeastern India [1-6]. This fungus was first isolated in 1956 in bamboo rats at the Pasteur Institute of Indochina, Vietnam . The first human infection was reported in a laboratory technician working with the fungus . The first naturally occurring human case was reported in 1973 in an American minister with Hodgkin lymphoma living in Southeast Asia . The infection emerged as an important fungal pathogen in endemic countries since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) epidemic in the mid-1980s [3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13]. To date, a great majority of the reported cases are seen in immunocompromised patients with HIV-AIDS. Imported cases of penicilliosis have been detected among HIV infected patients in Australia, Japan, United States, and countries in Europe (e.g., United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and Holland) [14-22]. New cases have also been increasingly reported in non-endemic areas among the locals, who had never travelled to endemic countries [23, 24]. The infection is rarely reported in Africans .
Here, we report a patient with Penicillium marneffei infection, which we believe is the second reported case of penicilliosis in an individual from Africa.
A 23-year-old African college student from Namibia who was studying in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, presented to the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, with a 2-month history of multiple papules on the face and upper part of his body. He also complained of dysuria and purulent urethral discharge for a month. There was a history of weight loss, loss of appetite, chronic cough, and low-grade fever for the last 3 months.
He admitted to having multiple unprotected sexual encounters with many women in Namibia and Malaysia. However, he denied having sex with men and did not use injectable drugs. He does not smoke but consumed alcohol moderately.
|Figure 1||Figure 2|
|Figure 1. Multiple umbilicated papules on the face|
Figure 2. Multiple umbilicated papules on the chest, upper abdomen, and proximal upper limbs
|Figure 3. Multiple umbilicated papules on the back|
Examination revealed an anxious man with multiple umbilicated papules on the face, neck, chest, back, and proximal upper limbs (Figures 1 through 3). He also had spontaneous purulent urethral discharge and oral candidiasis. There was no lymph node enlargement. Cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and abdominal examinations were unremarkable.
A provisional diagnosis of deep fungal infection and urethritis with underlying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was made.
The blood profile showed that he was anemic (hemoglobin of 9.2 g/dL). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 30 mm in the first hour. The total white cell count, platelet count, fasting blood lipids, fasting blood sugar, liver function tests, and renal profile were normal. The rapid bedside test, a touch smear using Giemsa stain, was performed on the umbilicated papule on the face and it revealed yeast cells. The urethral smear showed the presence of abundant leukocytes but the Gram stain for intracellular diplococcic was negative. Culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and serology for Chlamydia trachomatis were also negative. The chest radiograph was clear without evidence suggestive of tuberculosis. Three consecutive early morning sputum collections for acid fast bacilli were also negative.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology came back as positive a week later. A 6 mm punch biopsy of the papule demonstrated the presence of ill defined granulomas filled with foamy macrophages in the upper and mid dermis with the presence of multiple yeast cells within the histiocytes (Figures 4 and 5). Culture of the papule revealed Penicillium marneffei.
Thus, a final diagnosis was penicilliosis and nonspecific urethritis secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. He was immediately started on oral itraconazole 400 mg twice daily, oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily, and nystatin oral suspension 500,000 units 4 times daily. He was also referred to the Infectious Disease department for continuation of care, further investigations such as CD4 count and viral load, and commencement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, he returned to his home country of Namibia for treatment before the initiation of HAART and planned treatment with intravenous amphotericin B.
Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus that can exist in both yeast and mold forms. The phase transition between these two forms is temperature driven. It shows a unicellular yeast growth at the body temperature of 37°C and a multicellular hyphal growth at the room temperature of 25°C. The yeast form is essential for virulence. Many studies have been done to determine the genes needed for this transition; blockade of this transition will allow the virus to stay in the nonvirulent hyphal form. However, the genes are yet to be elucidated although various protein products needed for the morphogenesis are being described . Recently, it has been found that the regulatory factor X (RfX) protein might be important for the phase transition . There is also evidence that this morphogenesis has another pathway independent of temperature regulation, modulated by p21-activated kinases encoded by the pakB gene in vivo . An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was recently developed to aid the functional genetic analysis to determine the genetic element needed for the phase transition .
The natural reservoir and mode of transmission of this fungus remain elusive . In a case control study in Thailand, it was noted that exposure to soil, especially during the rainy season, was the single most important risk factor for acquisition of disease. However, exposure to and consumption of bamboo rats was not identified as a risk factor . Moreover, gene analyses also provided evidence that this fungus is a soil organism . It is theorized that the conidia in the environment is inhaled into the lungs causing pulmonary infection that later disseminates to the skin and other internal organs [1, 2].
The interaction of the fungus and the host immune response is complicated and not fully understood . T-helper cells and macrophages are important in the host defense against the fungus. It was found that nude and T-cell deficient mice succumbed to Penicillium marneffei infection, whereas healthy mice cleared the infection in 2 to 3 weeks . In humans, individuals with deficient T-helper cells, namely patients with HIV-AIDS, are prone to the infection. Most of these patients have a CD4 count less than 100 and have yet to be treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In endemic countries, Penicillium marneffei infection is regarded as an indicator disease of AIDS [1, 32]. Penicilliosis has also been reported as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiation of HAART . Besides infecting patients with HIV-AIDS, Penicillium marneffei infection can also occur in the setting of non-HIV immunosuppression, e.g., in patients with renal transplant and leprosy [6, 34, 35]. The infection can also occur in previously healthy individuals . A recent study found that patients with apparently normal immunocompetence might have acquired immunodeficiency caused by autoantibody against interferon gamma predisposing them to disseminated penicilliosis . In this study, it was noted that antibody against interferon gamma was seen in 80 percent of patients with serological evidence of penicilliosis. In a review of 47 patients with penicilliosis in Hong Kong, Wu et al. found that 94 percent of their patients were HIV positive, 4 percent were renal transplant recipients, and 2 percent had low T-cell counts caused by Hepatitis B .
In a review of 74 HIV infected patients with disseminated penicilliosis in Thailand, Sirisanthana et al. reported that 96 percent of patients presented with both fever and weight loss, 85 percent with skin lesions, 84 percent with generalized lymphadenopathy, 65 percent with hepatomegaly, 31 percent with cough, 23 percent with splenomegaly, and 15 percent with diarrhea . Similarly, in Manipur, India, among the 36 HIV infected patients with penicilliosis, 100 percent presented with weight loss, 97 percent with fever, 86 percent with weakness, 86 percent with anemia, 81 percent with skin lesions, 39 percent with hepatosplenomegaly, 33 percent with generalized lymphadenopathy, and 22 percent with diarrhea . This pattern was again replicated in the RIMS study in northeastern India . However, in Hong Kong, although fever and malaise were seen in more than 90 percent of their 47 patients with Penicillium marneffei infection, only 28 percent presented with skin lesions . The authors postulated that the low frequency of skin lesions might be attributable to poor documentation in this retrospective study. Nevertheless, skin lesions are the crucial link to the diagnosis of this deep fungal infection.
The majority of the skin lesions in patients with penicilliosis are papules with central necrotic umbilication . These lesions are not unlike lesions of molluscum contagiosum and the differential diagnoses must include other deep fungal infections (e.g., cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis). Papules and maculopapules are also not uncommonly seen . Atypical manifestations include ulcerated papulonodules and verrucous lesions . The verrucous lesions can be confused with lupus vulgaris, lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, and verrucous carcinoma . Skin lesions are most commonly seen on the face and neck region . Other affected sites include, in decreasing order, upper limbs, trunk, lower limbs, and oral mucosa .
Although these clinical features are mostly similar between patients with and without HIV, Zhang et al. found many differences in clinical characteristics of disseminated penicilliosis marneffei between these 2 groups of patients in China . They noted that patients without HIV have longer disease duration, higher misdiagnosis rate, more underlying diseases, and a higher rate of generalized lympadenopathy, body aches, and chest pain. Those without HIV tended to have intermittent fever compared to high persistent fever in patients with HIV. HIV infected patients usually present with molluscum like skin lesions whereas those without HIV mostly present with subcutaneous nodules and abscesses.
A rapid bedside presumptive diagnosis can be made by finding intracellular and extracellular yeasts on a microscopic examination of Wright stained touch smears of the skin lesions [1, 2]. This technique can also be used for lymph node biopsy specimens and bone marrow aspirates . Cytological study of the sputum, lung biopsy imprint smear, lung aspirates, and cervical lymph node aspirates can also allow rapid diagnosis . Skin biopsy specimen stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Grocott methenamine silver, or periodic acid Schiff show the presence of 2 to 4 µm intracellular and extracellular fission arthroconidia or unicellular round oval cells. This fungus divides by cross wall division formation in the histiocytes, allowing differentiation from another intracellular fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum . However, the gold standard investigation is mycological culture. The culture can be done from the blood, lymph node, sputum, skin, kidney, pericardium, stomach, liver or intestine, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and stool. Bone marrow, skin, and blood culture give the highest sensitivity of 100 percent, 90 percent and 76 percent respectively . Penicillium marneffei can also be identified serologically via detection of specific antibodies in the blood and molecular techniques via PCR studies and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in paraffin embedded specimens and the serum [1, 43, 44, 45]. However, serological and molecular diagnoses are very expensive and the reliability of these tests remains unproven in a clinical setting.
The treatment consists of administration of systemic antifungal agents. In a review of 86 patients with underlying HIV in Thailand from 1990 to 1992, it was noted that Penicillium marneffei was highly susceptible to 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, moderately susceptible to amphotericin B and had low susceptibility to fluconazole in vitro . In Cambodia between 2002 and 2004, Sar et al. found that the virulent yeast form is more susceptible than the mycelial form to amphotericin B and ketoconazole, whereas the mycelial and yeast forms displayed similar susceptibilities to flucytosine and itraconazole in vitro . The typical treatment regime consists of 2 weeks of 0.6 mg/kg/day intravenous amphotericin B followed by 8 weeks of oral itraconazole 400 mg daily to achieve clinical cure [6, 48]. In Manipur, India, oral itraconazole 400 mg daily is administered for 3 to 4 weeks until clinical and microbiological cure when skin of bone marrow smears become negative . A newer antifungal agent, voriconazole also proved to be an effective alternative. Patients were treated with loading doses for 1-4 days and then continued at 200 mg BID for up to 12 weeks . The underlying immunosuppression should be addressed, especially the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for those with HIV-AIDS.
The relapse rate of penicilliosis after successful treatment was reported to be between 4 percent and 50 percent [6, 48, 50]. Sapparatpinyo et al. evaluated use of secondary prophylaxis with oral itraconazole 200 mg daily to prevent the high relapse rate in Thailand . In this study, none of the 36 HIV infected patients treated with itraconazole had a relapse within one year compared to 20 of the 35 (57%) patients given placebo (P<0.001). It was recommended that patients be put on life-long itraconazole to prevent relapse [6, 48]. However, another study found that discontinuation of itraconazole as secondary prophylaxis once the CD4 count was 100 cells/ µL or higher was not associated with relapse . In this retrospective study, none of the 33 HIV infected patients relapsed after a median follow-up of 18 months. A study in Taiwan also found that only 1 of 18 HIV infected patients on HAART relapsed after discontinuation of itraconazole prophylaxis once they achieved a median CD4 count of 95 cells/ µL . The median follow up in this study was 35.3 months. Thus, it is recommended that HIV infected patients with clinical and microbiological cure be continued on itraconazole prophylaxis until the CD4 count reaches 100 cells/ µL. This secondary prophylaxis can be discontinued once the CD4 count is 100 cells/ µL or higher. However, there is no study on itraconazole prophylaxis among immunocompetent patients and those with immunosuppression other than HIV because they constituted the minority of patients with penicilliosis.
The prognosis appears promising with early accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. In the series from Hong Kong, the mortality rate was 11.4 percent whereas in Manipur, the rate was only 2.7 percent [3, 6]. Thus it is of utmost importance for the attending physician to make the diagnosis early and initiate treatment promptly to prevent the high mortality associated with this infection.
This case was presented because penicilliosis is rarely seen among Africans and it highlights the importance of suspecting Penicillium marneffei infection in patients with HIV infection travelling and staying in the endemic Southeast Asian region. We also like to stress that finding umbilicated papules in an adult warrants a thorough search for deep fungal infection and underlying immunosuppression, especially HIV infection. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment will allow for better survival.
References1. Vanittanakom N, Cooper CR Jr, Fisher MC, Sarisanthana T. Penicillium marneffei infection and recent advances in the epidemiology and molecular biology aspect. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19(1): 95-110. [PubMed]
2. Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K. Epidemiology and management of penicilliosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Int J Infect Dis 1998; 3(1): 48-53. [PubMed]
3. Ranjana KH, Priyokumar K, Singh TJ, Gupta ChC, Sharmila L, Singh PN, Chakrabarti A. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients in Manipur state, India. J Infect 2002; 45(4): 268-71. [PubMed]
4. Devi SB, Devi TS, Ningshen R, Devi KhR, Singh TB, Singh NB. Penicillium morneffei, an emerging AIDS-related pathogen--a RIMS study. J Indian Med Assoc 2009; 107(4): 208-10. [PubMed]
5. Deng Z, Ribas JL, Gibson DW, Connor DH. Infections caused by Penicillium marneffei in China and Southeast Asia. Review of eighteen cases and report of four more Chinese cases. Rev Infect Dis 1988; 10(3): 640-652. [PubMed]
6. Wu TC, Chan JW, Ng CK, Tsang DN, Lee MP, Li PC. Clinical presentations and outcomes of Penicillium marneffei infections: A series from 1994 to 2004. Hong Kong Med J 2008; 14(2): 103-9. [PubMed]
7. Capponi M, Segretain G, Sureau P. Penicilliosis from Rhizomys sinensis. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 1956; 49(3): 418-421. [PubMed]
8. Segretain G. Penicillium marneffei n. sp., agent of a mycosis of the reticuloendothelial system. Mycopathologia 1959; 11: 327-53. [PubMed]
9. Di Salvo AF, Fickling AM, Ajello L. Infection caused by Penicillium marneffei: description of first natural infection in man. Am J Clin Pathol 1973; 60(2): 259-263. [PubMed]
10. Sathapatayavongs B, Damrongkitchaiporn S, Saengditha P, Kiatboonsri P, Jayanetra P. Disseminated penicilliosis associated with HIV infection. J Infect 1989; 19(1): 84-85. [PubMed]
11. Rokiah I, Ng KP, Soo Hoo TS. Penicillium marneffei infection in an AIDS patient - a first case report from Malaysia. Med. J. Malaysia 1995; 50(1): 101-104. [PubMed]
12. Liao X, Ran Y, Chen H, Meng W, Xiang B, Kang M, Xiong Z, Zhuang J, Peng X, Deng C, Li G, Liu W. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection associated with AIDS: report of a case. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2002; 82(5): 325-329. [PubMed]
13. Hien TV, Loc PP, Hoa NTT, Duong NM, Quang VM, McNeil MM, Dung NT, Ashford DA. First case of disseminated Penicilliosis marneffei infection among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Vietnam. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32(4): e78-80. [PubMed]
14. Heath TC, Patel A, Fisher D, Bowden FJ, and Currie B. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei presenting illness of advanced HIV infection: a clinicopathological review, illustrated by a case report. Pathology 1995; 27(1): 101-105. [PubMed]
15. Mohri S, Yoshikawa K, Sagara H, Nakajima H. A case of Penicillium marneffei infection in an AIDS patient: the first case in Japan. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 2000; 41(1): 23-26. [PubMed]
16. Nord J, Karter, D and LaBombardi V. An AIDS patient with fever and pancytopenia. Int J Infect Dis 1998; 2(3): 173-175. [PubMed]
17. Peto T E, Bull R, Millard PR, Mackenzie DW, Campbell CK, Haines ME, and Mitchell RG. Systemic mycosis due to Penicillium marneffei in a patient with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect 1988; 16(3): 285-290. [PubMed]
18. Depraetere K, Colebunders R, Ieven M, de Droogh E, Pelgrom Y, Hauben E, van Mark E, Devroey C. Two imported cases of Penicillium marneffei infection in Belgium. Acta Clin Belg 1998; 53(4): 255-258. [PubMed]
19. Valeyrie L, Botterel F, Minozzi C, Roger P, Bourree P, Vittecoq D. Prolonged fever revealing disseminated infection due to Penicillium marneffei in a French HIV-seropositive patient. AIDS 1999; 13(6): 731-732. [PubMed]
20. Sobottka I, Albrecht H, Mack D, Stellbrink HJ, van Lunzen J, Tintelnot K, Laufs R. Systemic Penicillium marneffei infection in a German AIDS patient. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1996; 15(3): 256-259. [PubMed]
21. Julander I, Petrini B. Penicillium marneffei infection in a Swedish HIV-infected immunodeficient narcotic addict. Scand J Infect Dis 1997; 29: 320-322. [PubMed]
22. Kok I, Veenstra J, Rietra PJ, Dirks-Go S, Blaauwgeers JL, and Weigel HM. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection as an imported disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Description of two cases and a review of the literature. Netherlands J Med 1994; 44: 18-22. [PubMed]
23. Li H, Sang J, Li R, Liu Y, Zhang J. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection with verrucoid lesions in an AIDS patient in Beijing, a non-endemic region. Eur J Dermatol 2010; 20(3): 378-80.
24. Saikia L, Nath R, Mahanta J. Penicillium marneffei infection in Assam. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2010; 76(1):75-6. [PubMed]
25. Lo Y, Tintelnot K, Lippert U, Hoppe T. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in an African AIDS patient. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2000; 94(2): 187. [PubMed]
26. Chandler JM, Treece ER, Trenary HR, Brenneman JL, Flickner TJ, Frommelt JL, Oo ZM, Patterson MM, Rundle WT, Valle OV, Kim TD, Walker GR, Cooper CR Jr. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei. Proteome Sci 2008; 6: 17. [PubMed]
27. Bugeja HE, Hynes MJ, Andrianopoulos A. The RFX protein, RfxA, is an essential regulator of growth and morphogenesis in Penicillium marneffei. Eukaryot Cell. 2010; 9(4): 578-91. [PubMed]
28. Boyce KJ, Schreider L, Andrianopoulos A. In vivo yeast cell morphogenesis is regulated by a p21-activated kinase in the human pathogen Penicillium marneffei. PLoS Pathog 2009; 5(11): e1000678. [PubMed]
29. Kummasook A, Cooper CR, Vanittanakom N. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei. Med Mycol 2010. In press. [PubMed]
30. Chariyalertsak S, Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K, Praparattanapan J, Nelson KE. Case-control study of risk factors for Penicillium marneffei infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in northern Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 1997; 24(6): 1080-6. [PubMed]
31. Zhou A, Tse H, Lau S, Woo P, Yuen K. Genome Analysis Reveals Horizontal Gene Transfer in Penicillium marneffei. Int J Infect Dis 2008; 12: S45.
32. Devi KR, Singh LR, Rajkumari R, Usharani M, Devi KhS, Singh TB. Penicillium marneffei - an indicator disease of AIDS: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007; 50(3): 674-6. [PubMed]
33. Saikia L, Nath R, Hazarika D, Mahanta J. Atypical cutaneous lesions of Penicillium marneffei infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2010 ; 76(1): 45-8. [PubMed]
34. Lin JN, Lin HH, Lai CH, Wang JL, Yu TJ. Renal transplant recipient infected with Penicillium marneffei. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010; 10(2): 138. [PubMed]
35. Beh CP, George J. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. Med J Malaysia. 2009; 64(1): 86-8. [PubMed]
36. Saadiah S, Jeffrey AH, Mohamed AL. Penicillium marneffei infection in a non AIDS patient: first case report from Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 1999; 54(2): 264-6. [PubMed]
37. Tang BS, Chan JF, Chen M, Tsang OT, Mok MY, Lai RW, Lee R, Que TL, Tse H, Li IW, To KK, Cheng VC, Chan EY, Zheng B, Yuen KY. Disseminated penicilliosis, recurrent bacteremic non-thypoidal salmonellosis and burkholderiosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency due to antibody against interferon gamma. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2010. In press. [PubMed]
38. Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K, Chariyalertsak S, Praparattanapan J, Khamwan C, Tonkul N. Clinical presentation of 74 HIV-infected patients with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. J Infect Dis Antimicrob Agents 1998; 15: 65-68.
39. Saikia L, Nath R, Hazarika D, Mahanta J. Atypical cutaneous lesions of Penicillium marneffei infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2010; 76: 45-8. [PubMed]
40. Zhang JQ, Yang ML, Zhong XN, He ZY, Liu GN, Deng JM, Li MH. A comparative analysis of the clinical and laboratory characteristics in disseminated penicilliosis marneffei in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2008; 31(10): 740-6. [PubMed]
41. Jan IS, Chung PF, Wang JY, Weng MH, Hung CC, Lee LN. Cytological diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei infection. J Formos Med Assoc 2008; 107(6): 443-7. [PubMed]
42. Supparatpinyo K, Khamwan C, Baosoung V, Nelson KE, Sirisanthana T. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in Southeast Asia. Lancet 1994; 344(8915): 110-113. [PubMed]
43. Zeng H, Li X, Chen X, Zhang J, Sun J, Xie Z, Xi L. Identification of Penicillium marneffei in Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Using Nested PCR. Mycopathologia. 2009; 168(1): 31-5. [PubMed]
44. Sun J, Li X, Zeng H, Xie Z, Lu C, Xi L, de Hoog GS. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei in archived tissue samples. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2010; 58(3): 381-8. [PubMed]
45. Pongpom M, Sirisanthana T, Vanittanakom N. Application of nested PCR to detect Penicillium marneffei in serum samples. Med Mycol. 2009; 47(5): 549-53. [PubMed]
46. Supparatpinyo K, Nelson KE, Merz WG, Breslin BJ, Cooper CR Jr, Kamwan C, Sirisanthana T. Response to antifungal therapy by human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infections and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates from clinical specimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37(11): 2407-11. [PubMed]
47. Sar B, Boy S, Keo C, Ngeth CC, Prak N, Vann M, Monchy D, Sarthou JL. In vitro antifungal-drug susceptibilities of mycelial and yeast forms of Penicillium marneffei isolates in Cambodia. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44(11): 4208-10. [PubMed]
48. Supparatpinyo K, Perriens J, Nelson KE, Sirisanthana T. A controlled trial of itraconazole to prevent relapse of Penicillium marneffei infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1739-1743. [PubMed]
49. Supparatpinyo K, Schlamm HT. Voriconazole as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in AIDS patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007; 77(2): 350-3. [PubMed]
50. Supparatpinyo K, Nelson KE, Merz WG, Breslin BJ, Cooper CR Jr, Kamwan C, Sirisanthana T. Response to antifungal therapy by human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infections and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates from clinical specimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37: 2407-2411. [PubMed]
51. Chaiwarith R, Charoenyos N, Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K. Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis against penicilliosis marneffei in AIDS patients after HAART. AIDS 2007; 21(3): 365-7. [PubMed]
52. Sun HY, Chen MY, Hsiao CF, Hsieh SM, Hung CC, Chang SC. Endemic fungal infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Penicillium marneffei in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12(4): 381-8. [PubMed]
© 2010 Dermatology Online Journal