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Experimental data manipulations to assess performance of hyperspectral classification models of crop seeds and other objects
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s13007-022-00912-z
BackgroundOptical sensing solutions are being developed and adopted to classify a wide range of biological objects, including crop seeds. Performance assessment of optical classification models remains both a priority and a challenge.
MethodsAs training data, we acquired hyperspectral imaging data from 3646 individual tomato seeds (germination yes/no) from two tomato varieties. We performed three experimental data manipulations: (1) Object assignment error: effect of individual object in the training data being assigned to the wrong class. (2) Spectral repeatability: effect of introducing known ranges (0-10%) of stochastic noise to individual reflectance values. (3) Size of training data set: effect of reducing numbers of observations in training data. Effects of each of these experimental data manipulations were characterized and quantified based on classifications with two functions [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM)].
ResultsFor both classification functions, accuracy decreased linearly in response to introduction of object assignment error and to experimental reduction of spectral repeatability. We also demonstrated that experimental reduction of training data by 20% had negligible effect on classification accuracy. LDA and SVM classification algorithms were applied to independent validation seed samples. LDA-based classifications predicted seed germination with RMSE = 10.56 (variety 1) and 26.15 (variety 2), and SVM-based classifications predicted seed germination with RMSE = 10.44 (variety 1) and 12.58 (variety 2).
ConclusionWe believe this study represents the first, in which optical seed classification included both a thorough performance evaluation of two separate classification functions based on experimental data manipulations, and application of classification models to validation seed samples not included in training data. Proposed experimental data manipulations are discussed in broader contexts and general relevance, and they are suggested as methods for in-depth performance assessments of optical classification models.
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