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Beyond the Triplet Code: Context Cues Transform Translation


The elucidation of the genetic code remains among the most influential discoveries in biology. While innumerable studies have validated the general universality of the code and its value in predicting and analyzing protein coding sequences, established and emerging work has also suggested that full genome decryption may benefit from a greater consideration of a codon's neighborhood within an mRNA than has been broadly applied. This Review examines the evidence for context cues in translation, with a focus on several recent studies that reveal broad roles for mRNA context in programming translation start sites, the rate of translation elongation, and stop codon identity.

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