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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Liquefied gas electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  • Author(s): Rustomji, Cyrus S
  • Yang, Yangyuchen
  • Kim, Tae Kyoung
  • Mac, Jimmy
  • Kim, Young Jin
  • Caldwell, Elizabeth
  • Chung, Hyeseung
  • Meng, Y Shirley
  • et al.

Electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries have seen little change in their electrolyte chemistry since their commercialization, which has limited improvements in device performance. Combining superior physical and chemical properties and a high dielectric-fluidity factor, the use of electrolytes based on solvent systems that exclusively use components that are typically gaseous under standard conditions show a wide potential window of stability and excellent performance over an extended temperature range. Electrochemical capacitors using difluoromethane show outstanding performance from -78° to +65°C, with an increased operation voltage. The use of fluoromethane shows a high coulombic efficiency of ~97% for cycling lithium metal anodes, together with good cyclability of a 4-volt lithium cobalt oxide cathode and operation as low as -60°C, with excellent capacity retention.

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