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Experimental study of a direct evaporative cooling approach for Li-ion battery thermal management

  • Author(s): Zhao, R;
  • Liu, J;
  • Gu, J;
  • Zhai, L;
  • Ma, F
  • et al.

Published Web Location

A desirable operating temperature range and small temperature gradient is beneficial to the safety and longevity of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, and battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) play a critical role in achieving the temperature control. Having the advantages of direct access and low viscosity, air is widely used as a cooling medium in BTMSs. In this paper, an air-based BTMS is modified by integrating a direct evaporative cooling (DEC) system, which helps reduce the inlet air temperature for enhanced heat dissipation. Experiments are carried out on 18650-type batteries and a 9-cell battery pack to study how relative humidity and air flow rate affect the DEC system. The maximum temperatures, temperature differences, and capacity fading of batteries are compared between three cooling conditions, which include the proposed DEC, air cooling, and natural convection cooling. In addition, a DEC tunnel that can produce reciprocating air flow is assembled to further reduce the maximum temperature and temperature difference inside the battery pack. It is demonstrated that the proposed DEC system can expand the usage of Li-ion batteries in more adverse and intensive operating conditions.

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